Legal form Federal
First settlements on the territory of present day Simferopol were formed at pre-historic times, Napels-Scythian is the most famous among ancient ancestors of the city. It was the capital of late Scythian state formed in the 3rd century B.C. and presumably destroyed by Goths in the 3rd century A.D.
There was no large town on the territory of Simferopol in early medieval epoch. During Crimean khanate, a small town Akmesdzhit (known as Ak-Mechet in Russian sources) which was a residence of kalga - the second person in the state after khan. The quarters built at those times now are called the Old town. The Old town differs in its design with narrow and crooked streets - typical for oriental towns.
After Crimea was included into the Russian Empire, it was decided to form Tavricheskaya oblast (later – gubernia) on the most of the khanate territory and to found its center on the place of Ak-Mechet. In 1784, construction of administrative and apartment buildings and an Orthodox church began close to Kebir-Dzhami mosque. This district differs by its regular design (direct streets crossing each other at the right angle) and mainly 2-storeyed buildings.
The city including both newly built quarters and the territory of Ak-Mechet received the name Simferopol - it is translated from the Greek as “the town of benefit”. The Greek name was chosen due to the fact that at Catherine II time there was a fashion to give Greek names to new towns on the southern joined territories. It was a kind of memory of Greek colonies existing there at ancient and medieval times.
Since that time Simferopol is the administrative center of Crimea. Soviet power was established in Simferopol city in 1918. During the Russian Civil War 1918-1920, Simferopol was occupied by foreign troops. In 1945, after Autonomous republic was abolished and Simferopol became the center of Crimean oblast of Russia. The oblast was granted to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954.
After the declaration of Ukrainian independence in 1991, Simferopol became the capital of the movement (Sevastopol was another important center) for separating Crimea from Ukraine.
The historical and actual closeness of Crimea to Russia is the important reason for this movement: till 1954 Crimea administratively was a part of Russia, most part of Crimean population is Russian-speaking.
Simferopol street view
Simferopol is an important transportation juncture of Crimea. Most of the ways from the republic to outer world cross the city. Simferopol, Alushta and Yalta are connected with a trolley-bus line - the longest in the world (86, 5 km).
Most part of Crimea Universities are located in Simferopol, among them - the main University of the republic, one of the 10 classical Universities in Ukraine - Tavrichesky National University named after V.I.Vernadsky, founded in 1918.
Simferopol has teacher-training, medical and agricultural institutes and several research establishments.
Simferopol has a wide range of food-processing industries and makes wine, tobacco and cigarettes. There are also light engineering and consumer-goods industries, producing machine-tools, armatures, television sets, clothing and footwear.
Vorontsov Palace. One of the earliest monuments of classical architecture in the Crimea built in 1826-1827. The palace is situated in a landscape park “Salgirka” founded in the early 19th century. Today it is a botanical garden of Tauric National University named after V. Vernadsky. Address: Simferopol, Yaltinskaya Str., 2, park “Salgirka”.
Scythian Naples. The ruins of the ancient capital of late Scythian state are located at the top of Peter’s Hill in the center of Simferopol. You can see reconstructed tower, the remains of the wall. There is an excavated area with the foundation of a large public building with columns, a granary. Address: Simferopol, Neapolskaya Str.